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wine

 

 

 

the   history  of  wine

 

 

 

WHAT IS WINE?

IT IS THE ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE OBTAINED FROM THE FERMENTATION OF THE JUICE OF FRESH GRAPES.

 

 

WHERE DID IT ORIGINATE?

Archeologists discovered evidence of winemaking 8000 years B.C. in Persia.  From there it spread to Assyria, Babylon and Egypt.  By 2000 B.C.,the ancient Greeks and Romans were making wine.  At the collapse of the Roman Empire, wine making was kept alive in the monasteries.  With the spread of Christianity throughout the world, wine was introduced to other countries, as the as part of the sailors` daily diet, which also combated scurvy.  In 1861, Louis Pasteur discovered the causes of fermentation, which would have a drastic effect on the making of wine for the rest of time.

 

 

NATURAL DISASTERS;

 

*    Powdery Mildew:- It was brought from North America to France in      1854, but dusting with Sulphur sucessfully controlled the disease.

 

 

*    Phylloxera:- A root louse, discovered in 1885, it devastated the world`s vineyards.  It Church was the main producer of wine.  Wine was also introduced to the world by means of adventurous explorers from Portugal and Spain.  It was regarded was accidentally introduced from North America in 1860.  A cure was found in Europe---grafting of Vitis Vinefera onto American rootstock, which is resistant to Phylloxera.

 

 

 

 

 

VITICULTURE

 

The cultivated vine is a member of the family ‘VITACAE’.  Most vines descend from the region of the Black and Caspian Seas.  Its scientific name is VITIS VINEFERA----Latin for ‘wine bearing’.

 

WHAT ARE THE MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTION OF WINE?

1.     SOIL

2.     CLIMATE

3.     GRAPE VARIETIES

4.     VITICULTURE

 

1.SOIL:-

“Give a vine rich soil, and its roots will stay near the top, but plant it in stony ground and the roots will plunge deeper.”

Gravel and large stones are best, and subsoils must be well drained.  The poorer the soil, the better the wine.

“Vines like to see the river, but don`t like to get their feet wet!-------

 A saying by a Bordeaux chateau owner.

 

2.CLIMATE:-

Although a Mediterrranean climate is the most favourable for the vine, two general bands around the earth`s surface---known as the Temperate Zones, between 30-50 degrees lattitude North and South, have been identified as the most suitable for wine production.---------

North;Los Angeles to San Francisco, Calafornia

          Northern New York to Rhode Island, Massachusets.

          England---through Europe, Romania, Russia to Tokyo.

          The West side of India.

South;West coast of Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Peru and Chile.

           South Africa

           Australia—the East coast closest to Sydney.

          New Zealand and Samoa.

 

Climate is a critical factor for wine growing.

*    Temperature.

*    Rain—Irrigation.

*    Humidity.

*    Wind.

*    Hail.

*    Frost.

 

The growth cycle of vines require the following conditions:

1.     Spring......active new growth.......mild weather with dry

                                                                               Spells.

                                                                       ....... no severe frost

                                                                       ....... strong winds can cause

                                                                               poor polination and also

                                                                              damage foilage.

                                                                             

2.     Summer...growth and ripening....long warm to hot days

                                                                          .....Fairly dry weather, to

                                                                               Prevent fungal diseases and

                                                                               Beries splitting.

3.     Autumn...root development.........Rain/Irrigation.

4.     Winter.....dormancy(3 months)....very low temperatures

                                                                               Abundant rain.

 

The average life of a commercially grown vine is 25—30 years and its productive life begins after the first 3—4 years

 

WHAT CAN THE FARMER DO TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY?

*    Trellis the vines.....to keep the vines off the ground

                                         .....to make it easier to pick the grapes

                                         .....not all vines are trellised

                                         .....bush vines grow better in dry areas with poor

                                              soil

*    Prune the vines......to control growth

                                   ......to shape the vine

                                   ......to remove dead or unproductive shoots

                                   ......to control quality and quantity of the grapes

                                   ......prune in the winter—the later it is pruned, the

                                         later it will flower, the later you will pick the

                                         grapes.

*    Enrich the soil with fertilizers....Nitrogen, Potassium and Calcium.

*    Control pests and diseases;-

ü     Pests; Nematodes, Snout beetles and Mealy bugs

ü     Diseases;Powdery mildew, Rot and Anthracnose

 

VINIFICATION

FROM THE VINYARD TO THE WINERY;

Grapes are picked at different stages of ripeness, depending on the style of wine the cellarmaster wishes to make.

The ideal time of day to pick grapes is in the morning when it is cool, but some winemakers pick their grapes at night when it is at ithe coolest to retain the flavour of the wine.

Machines pick grapes, but some countries still pick by hand.

Method;

*    The picker picks the bunch of grapes and places it in a basket or

Lug-box.

*    The full basket/lug-box is then emptied into a tractor drawn cart.

*    The tractor and the grapes are then weighed.

*    A grape sample is taken and the sugar content, known as ‘DEGREES BALLING’ is measured.

*    The tractor tips the grapes into the crusher.

*    The tractor is then weighed again to determine the weight of the grapes

 

TURNING GRAPES INTO WINE:

The skin / husk contains:

*    Yeast and bacteria on the skin called ‘BLOOM’.

*    Color-pigment

*    Tannin

*    Flavoring substances

*    Fruit acids

*    Aromatic amtter(aldehydes and ester)

The flesh / pulp contains:

*    70-85% water

*    sugars

*    pips

*    proteins

*    minerals

*    vitamins A,B and C.

 

 

 

 

FERMENTATION;

 

GRAPE SUGAR + YEAST = ALCOHOL + CARBON DIOXIDE

 

WHERE DOES YEAST COME FROM?

It occurs naturally on the grape in the “bloom” on the skin.  When the grapes skin is broken, the juice flows out, yeast becomes active, and , alcohol, carbon dioxide and heat result.

 

HOW LONG DOES FERMENTATION TAKE PLACE?

It continues until all the sugar has been converted into alcohol-------------about 5-14 days

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